Marines and soldiers landed on 1 April 1945, to begin an 82-day campaign which became the largest land-sea-air battle in history and was noted for the ferocity of the fighting and the high civilian casualties with over 150,000 Okinawans losing their lives. The United States Navy's Pacific Fleet was caught off guard on the morning of December 7, 1941, when 353 Imperial Japanese Navy aircraft heavily bombed Pearl Harbor in a surprise airstrike. At 8:50 am, the second Japanese wave of the attack began with 171 planes. The Navy organized to recruit women into a separate women's auxiliary, labeled Women Appointed for Voluntary Emergency Service (WAVES). Casualties were remarkably light, with the Germans having hardly any airpower or seapower to combat it. This category has the following 14 subcategories, out of 14 total. Their smaller 5" guns, and the 4,800 3" to 8" guns on cruisers and destroyers also proved effective at bombarding landing zones. They were rearmed with 16" guns while under construction as the first escalator clause was triggered in the London Naval Treaty after Japan refused to sign. Not every Japanese stronghold had to be captured; some, like the big bases at Truk, Rabaul and Formosa were neutralized by air attack and then simply leapfrogged. The "big-gun" admirals on both sides dreamed of a great shootout at twenty-mile (32 km) range, in which carrier planes would be used only for spotting the mighty guns. Submarines 161 Alabama (BB8). This led to the development of the North Carolina Class battleship, originally envisioned to be armed with 14" guns. Entries are listed below in alphanumeric order (1-to-Z). Chief Nurse Laura Cobb and her nurses, Mary Chapman, Bertha Evans, Helen Gorzelanski, Mary Harrington, Margaret Nash, Goldie O'Haver, Eldene Paige, Susie Pitcher, Dorothy Still and C. Edwina Todd (some of the "Angels of Bataan") were captured in 1942 in the Philippines and imprisoned in the Los Baños internment camp there, where they continued to function as a nursing unit, until they were rescued by American forces in 1945. 535 ships began landing 128,000 Army soldiers and Marines on June 15, 1944 in the Mariana and Palau Islands. Enormous effort went into recruiting and training sailors and Marines, and building warships, warplanes and support ships in preparation for a thrust across the Pacific, and to support Army operations in the Southwest Pacific, as well as in Europe and North Africa.. These became the mainstay of the rebuilt fleet. Entirely new weapons systems were invented—like the landing ships, such as the 3,000 ton LST ("Landing Ship Tank") that carried 25 tanks thousands of miles and landed them right on the assault beaches.  The U.S. Navy fought six great battles with the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN): the Attack on Pearl Harbor, Battle of the Coral Sea, the Battle of Midway, the Battle of the Philippine Sea, the Battle of Leyte Gulf, and the Battle of Okinawa. There are a total of [ 24 ] WW2 U.S. Battleships (1941-1945) entries in the Military Factory. (275). Ozawa's plan therefore was to use his advantage in range by positioning his fleet 300 miles (480 km) out, forcing the Americans to search over 150,000 square miles (390,000 km2) of ocean just to find him. They were: Battle of Savo Island, Battle of the Eastern Solomons, Battle of Cape Esperance, Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, Battle of Tassafaronga and Battle of Rennell Island. Chief Nurse Marion Olds and nurses Leona Jackson, Lorraine Christiansen, Virginia Fogerty and Doris Yetter were taken prisoner on Guam shortly after Pearl Harbor and transported to Japan. Us Navy Ships Ww2 Vietnam War Veteran Of US Navy Old Man Retired Veteran Navy MA1 Bomber Jacket All Over Print ð§¥ DRESS LIKE A VETERAN â Hit the streets with your timeless fashion taste. Port bow, underway. Sea Slice. Warships and Submarines (1941-1945) entries in the Military Factory. The Navy suffered 2,008 deaths, along with 327 deaths from other U.S. military branches as well as 68 civilians. Ozawa gambled on surprise, luck and a trick strategy, but his battle plan was so complex and so dependent on good communications that it quickly broke down. The American 5th Fleet covering the landing comprised 15 big carriers and 956 planes, plus 28 battleships and cruisers, and 69 destroyers. World War II U.S. naval action video with sound from the Mariana Islands campaign. Too great an emphasis was placed upon the battleship to the exclusion of anti-submarine warfare, which was essential to success in the Battle of the Atlantic.  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